• Journal of Business & Economics (JBE)

Editorial Policy and Guideline:

Ethical Policy:
Ethical Policy of JBE is to publish original research work, thus plagiarism of any sort is unacceptable. Use of other’s work must be cited and acknowledged. Paper already published in other journals will not be accepted for JBE
Editorial Policy & Guideline for Authors:
Submission of research papers must be sent through AU website (www.au.edu.pk/jbe). Documents submitted should be in accordance with the following guidelines.
• Title Page
• Title of the Study (center aligned, font size 16)
• Full names of Author(s), name of university or research center, designation etc., ( center-aligned, font size 9 )
• Abstract (not more than 200 words)
• Keywords
• Introduction
• Review of Literature
• Theoretical Model/Framework and Methodology
• Results, Implications and Conclusion
• References
• Data Sheets/Results

Headings and subheadings should be differentiated by numbering in the following sequence: 1, 1.1, 1.1.1 etc. Subheadings should be in italics. The body of the paper must be typed in Times New Roman with 11 font size, double-spaced, and should have margins of 1.33 inches on the top, 0.87 inches on the bottom, 0.75 inches on the left and right sides. The length of the paper should not be more than 30 pages, including figures, tables, exhibits, bibliography and annexure. Figures and table must have a title at the top and a caption mentioning data source and abbreviations. Footnotes should follow continuous numberings. Text including citation must be according to the APA format.

If the paper is accepted, it will be subject to proof reading and necessary formatting. Book reviews must contain the following details: name of the author, title and sub-title, place of publication and the name of publisher, date of publication, number of pages and price etc. Book review must be concise and may not be more than 3 pages. Authors contributing to the journal will be sent a complementary copy of the published issue.

Figure and Tables:

Figure captions
Number figures consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. There should be a brief introduction of the tables as well as an explanation/description for understanding a table and its connection to the context of discussion.


Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. There should be a brief introduction of the tables as well as an explanation/description for understanding a table and its connection to the context of discussion


Citations in text

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal, 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Reference style
APA referencing style should be followed while giving in text and end references.


Direct quotation – use quotation marks around the quote and include page numbers

Samovar and Porter (1997) point out that “language involves attaching meaning to symbols" (p.188).

Alternatively, “Language involves attaching meaning to symbols" (Samovar & Porter, 1997, p.188).

Indirect quotation/paraphrasing – no quotation marks

Attaching meaning to symbols is considered to be the origin of written language (Samovar & Porter, 1997).

N.B. Page numbers are optional when paraphrasing, although it is useful to include them (APA Publication Manual).

Citations from a secondary source

As Hall (1977) asserts, “culture also defines boundaries of different groups” (as cited in Samovar and Porter, 1997, p. 14).

In a reference list In-text citation
1. Book with one author
King, M. (2000). Wrestling with the Angel: A Life of Janet Frame. Auckland, New Zealand: Viking King, 2000) or
King (2000) compares Frame ...
2. Book with two to five authors (see Library APA referencing webpage for six or more authors)
Krause, K.-L., Bochner, S., & Duchesne, S. (2006). Educational Psychology for Learning and Teaching (2nd ed.). South Melbourne, Vic., Australia: Thomson. Use & between authors’ names, except when paraphrasing in text. When a work has three, four or five authors, cite all authors the first time, and in subsequent citations include only the first author followed by et al. (Krause, Bochner, & Duchesne, 2006)
 (Krause et al., 2006)
3. Book or report by a corporate author e.g. organization, association, government department
University of Waikato. (1967). First hall of residence (Information series No. 3). Hamilton, New Zealand: Author. When the author and the publisher are the same, use Author in the publisher field. (University of Waikato, 1967)
Some group authors may be abbreviated ins subsequent citations if they are readily recognizable.
4. Book chapter in edited book
Helber, L. E. (1995). Redeveloping Mature Resorts for New Markets. In M. V. Conlin & T. Baum (Eds.), Island Tourism: Management Principles and Practice (pp. 105-113). Chichester, England: John Wiley. Include the page numbers of the chapter after the book title. (Helber, 1995)
 Helber (1995) compares luxury resorts ...
5. Journal article – academic/scholarly (electronic version) with DOI (see also Library APA referencing webpage
Hohepa, M., Schofield, G., & Kolt, G. S. (2006). Physical Activity: What do High School Students Think? Journal of Adolescent Health, 39(3), 328-336. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2005.12.024 A capital letter is used for key words in the journal title. The journal title and volume number are italicized, followed by the issue number in brackets (not italicized). (Hohepa, Schofield, & Kolt, 2006)
 then subsequently, if 3-5 authors (Hohepa, et al., 2006)
6. Journal article – academic/scholarly (electronic version) with no DOI
Harrison, B., & Papa, R. (2005). The Development of an Indigenous Knowledge Program in a New Zealand Maori-Language Immersion School. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 36(1), 57-72. Retrieved from ProQuest Education Journals database. Undergraduates: Give the name of the database. Researchers: Give the URL of the journal homepage. e.g. Retrieved from http://ucpressjournals.com/journal.asp?j=aeq (Harrison & Papa, 2005) or Harrison and Papa (2005) recommend ...
7. Journal article - academic/scholarly (print version)
Gibbs, M. (2005). The Right to Development and Indigenous Peoples: Lessons from New Zealand. World Development, 33(8), 1365-1378. (Gibbs, 2005) or Gibbs (2005) contradicts ...
8. Journal article - academic/scholarly (Internet only – no print version)
Snel, D., & Hodgetts, D. (n.d.). The Psychology of Heavy Metal Communities and White Supremacy. Te Kura Kete Aronui, 1. Retrieved from http://www.waikato.ac.nz/wfass/tkka (n. d.) = no date. For html version only, cite the paragraph number in text (Snel & Hodgetts, n.d.)
 Snel and Hodgetts (n.d.) suggest “...” (para. 3)
9. Magazine article – popular/trade/general interest
Goodwin, D. K. (2002, February 4). How I Caused that Story. Time, 159(5), 69. Full date is used for weekly magazines; month and year for monthly magazines (Goodwin, 2002)
Goodwin (2002) defends ...
10. Web pages (When multiple web pages are referenced, reference the homepage)
Statistics New Zealand. (2007). New Zealand in Profile 2007. Retrieved from http://www.stats.govt.nz Author (could be organization), date (either date of publication or latest update), document title, date retrieved if contents are likely to change, URL (Statistics New Zealand, 2007)

Abbreviation of words should be defined in full in the first time of use, and then the abbreviation can be use many times.

 Submission checklist
The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.

Ensure that the following items are present:

 One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:

• E-mail address
• Full postal address
• Telephone and fax numbers

 All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• Keywords
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, brief introduction and explanation/description)
• Data Sheets/Results

 Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)


  • 1. There has been a policy/criteria change with respect to JBE PAPER SUBMISSION. -Articles/papers submitted after 01 Jan 2019 will be considered for publication under revised criteria and policy.
  • 2. All previous papers before Jan 2019, which are not yet replied to, should be considered as rejected articles.
  • 3. Those interested in publication, can submit their articles through JBE webpage after checking the revised publication policy.

Journal of Business & Economics (JBE)

By Web Team AU